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The Spaniards Took Back Manila From British Occupation On May 31, 1764.

The war between France and Great Britain (UK) and Northern Ireland Spilled Over To the Philippine Islands.

Image courtesy of malacanang.gov.ph

In 1756 these countries formally declared war and consequently drew their allies into conflict as well: Prussia and Portugal who were allied with Britain and the Spanish Empire and Austria who were allied with France. After two years of conflict, a British Fleet was sent to the Archipelago and on September 22, 1762 this powerful fleet of thirteen vessels was seen at Manila Bay. This arrival of the British forces in the islands signaled the start of the British occupation that lasted for two years.

The Peace Treaty at Paris and the Arrangement for the Transfer of Power

At the strength of the Peace Treaty at Paris signed on February 10, 1763 by representatives from Britain, France, and Spain, Spanish forces led by Simon de Anda y Salazar re-entered Manila and took the city back. The British invaders transferred the authority over the Philippines to Anda at the Patio of Santa Cruz Church in Manila on May 31, 1764. The Peace Treaty at Paris ended the worldwide ‘Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) and demanded that British forces leave the archipelago. Anda was the remaining high ranking Spanish official who escaped captivity. The audencia officers together with the acting governor-general Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio, were taken as prisoners. Anda declared himself as the governor and captain-general and out of his patriotism established resistance in the provinces.

Imabe courtesy of bayanihannews.com.au and kahimyang.com

The notice of the suspension of hostilities was brought to Manila from India (Madras) on July 23, 1763 and was immediately sent to Anda by the archbishop, although Anda had previously been informed of it but paid no attention. Because of his disregard, the British published a decree putting Anda responsible for any further bloodshed. Anda explained his side citing Articles 21 and 22 of the Treaty on January 24 and 28, 1764, stating that hostilities will end and the British will be accorded with necessary assistance in terms of transportation which should be accomplished within six months. For Anda, that time was August 1763, however the British forces still hold Manila and Cavite, and if they remained their until the following month, they must remain until the rainy season of 1765. He asked that the terms of the Peace Treaty be observed, and all hostilities suspended while British are being furnished with all the assistance due to them such as food at a just price or else conflict will continue.

An exchange of correspondence between the British and Anda ensued dated March 9 and 10, 1764 which indicates that Anda was waiting to receive a copy of the treaty from the British English vessel that sailed from Fort St. George (India), and that he was about to arrange the furnishing of the supplies to the British as far as possible.

On May 31, 1764, at the patio of Santa Cruz Church, Manila, the British transferred the authority over the Philippines to Simon de Anda y Salazar, a Spaniard who protected the Filipino cause, putting an end to British occupation of the Philippine Islands. On the evening of the same date, a party was thrown for the British commanders and on June 4 the gesture was reciprocated by the British led by Captain William Brereton for Anda. On June 10 & 11, 1764, the British left Manila Bay for India.

Sources:

The Philippine Islands, Vol. XLIX, 1762-1765. (www.gutenberg.org.)

Today in Philippine history, May 31, 1764, the Spaniards took back Manila from the British following the signing of peace treaty at Paris. (www.kahimyang.com.)

The British Conquest of Manila. (www.malacanang.gov.ph.

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