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June 2, 1899 Malolos Congress Declared War Against the United States.

The declaration was issued by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo (president of the newly formed Republic) and Pedro Paterno (President of the Malolos Congress also known as Revolutionary Congress).

A session of the Malolos Congress. Image courtesy of

Below is a copy of the proclamation, lifted from

The proclamation urging the Filipino people to continue the war.


No one is ignorant of the fact that since we took the direction of the ship of state we have sacrificed ourselves to the service of the government of our republic, offering ourselves as victims for the sake of peace, without abandoning the sacred ideal of liberty and independence which fires our country, but the North Americans refuse to suspend hostilities asked for by us to consult the national assembly, seat of the free popular will.

Well, since they wish it, may the responsibility for the war and its consequences fall on the great nation of the United States of America. We have behaved as patriots and human beings, showing the great powers of the world that the present cabinet acts with a diplomacy which protects our cause as do the arms which defend our rights.

The council of government, deciding to preserve our republican institutions, national independence and the presidency of Don Emilio Aguinaldo, in spite of the Americans, who intend to construct upon our ruins the edifice of tyranny, has concluded to continue the war, preserving unhurt in their spirit and letter our constitution and laws, which we have conquered with so much blood such sacrifices.

To war, then, beloved brothers, to war.

In order that the people be free it is necessary for them all to be brave. Rich or poor, learned or ignorant, beloved Filipinos, hasten to unite to save our native land from insult and ignominy punishments and scaffolds, and from the sad and fatal inheritance of enslaved generations.

The God of war, in whom we have put our faith and hope, is helping us. Confusion, interior and international di;ssensions and conflicts rend the invading army. Its volunteers, being aware that we are in the right, fight without enthusiasm and only in compliance with their forced military duty. Within the American nation itself a great political party asks for the recognition of our rights, and Divine Providence watches over the justice of our cause.

Forward, Filipinos, and the sun of victory will shine on us.

Viva the Filipino sovereign people!

Viva national independence!

Viva the liberating army!

Viva Don Emilio Aguinaldo, President of the Republic!


Source: The Development of Philippine Politics, Pages 199-200.

The revolutionary Congress was known for its two historically significant achievements: the ratification of the declaration of independence on September 29, 1898 and the framing of the Malolos Constitution, which gave birth to the First Philippine Republic, inaugurated on January 23, 1899 at Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan. Barely two weeks after the inauguration, on February 4, a confrontation between U.S. soldiers manning a checkpoint and Filipino soldiers on Sociego corner Silencio Streets in Sta. Mesa, Manila occurred. The Filipino troops defied the US troops’ warning to halt. Provoked, a US soldier fired and a Filipino soldier fell and became the first casualty of what is now known as the Filipino-American War.

The ratification of the Treaty of Paris on February 6, 1899, justified the United States war against the newly organized Philippine Republic. A series of defeat ensued starting from the fall of the Mololos, the seat of the Philippine government on March 31, 1899 and culminated on the capture of Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela on March 1901. Shortly thereafter, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo took the oath of allegiance to the United States. This development signaled the end of the First Philippine Republic.


Philippine Historical Association Historical Bulletin, Vol. XLI, 2007.

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